Freedom struggle and Sanskrit bhakti literature in Odisha
Dr. Debaraj Panigrahi
There are two types of भक्ति compositions, like देवादिभक्ति composition and another is राष्ट्रभक्ति (patriotic) composition. During the freedom struggle both types of works are came in to the focus. But, a large number of works are for राष्ट्रभक्ति. Some of among them are famous which are to be discussed here. Those are – मातृमुक्तिमुक्तावली, भारतगौरवम्, भारतसंहति, सूर्यदूतम्, सुरस्मिकाश्मिरम्, वन्दे महोत्कलधराम्, मलयदूतम्, रक्तझङ्कारम्, वन्दे भारतम्, उत्कलगौरवम् (प्रवोधकुमारमिश्र), त्कलगौरवम् (प्रमोदचन्द्रमिश्र), शोणितस्वाक्षरम्, मातृगीतिकाञ्जलि, मातृगीतीका, देशगीतीका, वन्दिनः स्वदेशचिन्ता etc.
The sentiments like devotional or भक्ति received no recognition as it is included in the भाव, the immature rasa stage of the रति. The love of God, Guru or teacher, homage for saints and nation is known as भक्तिभाव i.e. देवादिविषयारतिः. In other hand Paṇḍitaraj Jagannath illustrated that, all kinds of रति except the रति between men and women are to be included in the भाव, i.e. गुरुदेवनृपपुत्रादिविषयारतिः. However, Ānandavardhana one of the pioneers of the scholastic school had counted भक्तिरस as the superior verity of रस far greater and better than the poetic relish.
Since the tradition of devotional lyrics actually started from medieval Bhakti movement centers mainly round the early romantic life of कृष्ण but latter the same came to be applied to other deities as well.
In Odisha the age of religious or devotional lyrics came into being with the emergence of गीतगोविन्द. After that a number of śatakas and stotras were written and published in the 20thand 21stcentury