An overview of Chāndogya upaniṣad in the light of Mādhvabhāṣya
Niveditha R Dileep
Upaniṣads are the vital part of Indian philosophical tradition. Upaniṣadic teachings have wide range of acceptance in the modern era also. Generally, most studies focus on the philosophical aspect of upaniṣadic interpretations. Their interpretations also embedded with other two aspects viz., Mystical and Theistic. But the fact is, these are interrelated ad no one can separate these aspects. That means one becomes relevant and meaningful, only if the other two aspects are taken into consideration. The pioneers approached the Upaniṣads in rational and logical way and their method of teaching upaniṣadic expressions are entirely different from the modern aspect. Their methodology includes with three parts viz., Anubhava, Ācāra and Vicāra. The upaniṣadic philosophy is purely theistic and realistic in nature. They are the perennial sources of infinite spiritual knowledge. There are ten major upaniṣads (mukhyopaniṣads) viz., Iśāvāsya upaniṣad, Kenopaniṣad, Kaṭopaniṣad, Praśnopaniṣad, Muṇdakopaniṣad, Māṇdūkyopaniṣad, Aitareyaupaniṣad, Brhadāranyakopaniṣad and Chāndogya upaniṣad. Infact there are one hundred and eight upaniṣads are available.A few more such from the same, Svetāśvetara and Kauṣītaki are also important. So many ācāryas wrote commentaries on principal upaniṣads. Śrī Śaṅkarācārya,Śrī Raṅga Rāmānujācārya and Śrī Madhvācārya are famous among them. Śrī Śaṅkarācārya has written commentaries on the ten principal upaniṣads. Rāmānujācārya has not written commentaries on upaniṣads. He made his diacussions views on key passages of upaniṣads in his text ‘Vedārdhasāra Saṅgraha’. From the side of Viśiṣtādvaita, A scholar named ‘Śrī Raṅgarāmānujācārya’ has written bhāṣyas on the mukhya upaniṣads. Śrī Madhvācārya has written commentaries on all the ten Upaniṣads. He has made his discussions on the interpretation of vital upaniṣadic expressions in his other famous works viz., Sūtrabhāṣya, Anuvyākhyāna, Tatvanirṇaya and Tatvodyota. This paper is made as an overview of the Chāndogya upaniṣad, which is treated as one of the major upaniṣads, It is implanted in the Chāndogya Brāhmaṇa of Sāmaveda (Tāṇdya school) and includes largest compilations of philosophical expressions. This article mainly focuses on how Madhvācārya has interpreted Chāndogya upaniṣad. In brief the central teaching of each upaniṣad, his interpretation of vital key passages, symbolisation of philosophical expressions etc. are taken into consideration.