The concept of Puruṣa as treated in the Sāṁkhya philosophy
Dr. Jumli Nath
Sāṁkhya is one of the oldest systems of Indian philosophy, advocates the clear-cut dualism of Prakṛti and Puruṣa. Sāṁkhya recognizes twenty five principles, among which two are regarded as the ultimate realities viz., mahat, ahaṁkāra, pañcajnānendriya, pañcakarmendriya, manas, pañcatanmātra and pañcamahābhuta are the evolutes of Prakṛti. Accordig to Sāṁkhya system, the second ultimate reality Puruṣa is as an absolute and independent entity. Puruṣa is quite opposite of Prakṛti in nature. It is pure, conscious and beyond change and silent scpactator. It has neither beginning nor end. By nature, Puruṣa is inactive, a mere witness, a solitary, indifferent and a passive spectator which is beyond the perceptual experience. Ῑśvarakṛṣṇa, in his Sāṁkhyakārikā states about the plurality of Self (Puruṣa).