A critical study of the Vaiṣṇavaite Upaniṣads of later origin
The Upaniṣads are commonly referred to as Vedānta. The concepts of Brahman (ultimate reality) and Ātman (Soul or Self) are central ideas in all of the Upaniṣads and ‘know your Ātman’ is their thematic focus. The later Upaniṣads numbering about 95, also called minor Upaniṣads, are dated from the late 1st millennium BCE to mid 2nd millennium CE. Upaniṣads are divided according to religion into Śaktism, Sannyāsa, Śaivism, Vaiṣṇavism, Yoga, and Sāmānya. Here, I want to discuss the nature, content, doctrine of five Vaiṣṇavaite Upaniṣads of Later Origin. The Vaiṣṇavaite Upaniṣads are Kali-Saṇtāraṇa Upaniṣad, Vāsudeva Upaniṣad, Nārāyaṇa Upaniṣad, HayagṛvaUpaniṣadand DattātreyaUpaniṣad.